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The Siege of Kazan 1552
The conquest of Kazan and Astrakhan by Muscovy can be seen as the birth of a Russian Empire. It had profound consequences for the steppe region and beyond, allowing Russian expansion eastwards, eventually as far as the Pacific.
Early reign of Ivan the Terrible
Under his rule, Moscow resumes its bid for control of neighbouring Kazan, which is already weakened by decades of instability
Muscovy and her Asiatic neighbours 1400s-early 1500s
The story of the complex relationship between the Russians and their southern and eastern neighbours in 1400s-early 1500’s. Those neighbours were the successor states of the once mighty Mongol-Tatar empire known as the Golden Horde; the khanates of Kazan, Crimea, Siberia, the Great Horde and Nogay Horde. These relationships were at least as important to Muscovy as those with her western neighbours. Pictured: QolSharif Mosque in the city of Kazan, Russia
Expansion of the Ottoman Empire in the early 1500’s. Conquest of the Balkans and Mamluk-controlled Egypt, and rivalry with Shia Persia. Also, the story of the kingdom of Hungary in the same period, leading up to the Battle of Mohacs 1526. Pictured – the coat of arms of Matthias Corvinus, King of Hungary 1458-1490
On Patreon I am releasing a four part set of episodes on the Italian Wars (1494-1559) and the Battle of Pavia (1525).
The first episode is available to all here
The full set of episodes is available to patrons of the History of Europe, Key Battles podcast
The Battle of Diu 1509
The fight for naval supremacy of the lucrative spice trade of the Indian Ocean between the Mamluk Sultanate based in Cairo and the Portuguese
Portuguese Conquests in India
The Portuguese begin to seize control of the spice trade of the Indian Ocean, by a mixture of diplomacy and brute force. For King Manuel of Portugal, his new maritime empire becomes not just an end in itself but a possible opportunity to weaken the Mamluk Sultanate, and perhaps even a means to recover the Holy Land for Christianity. Pictured: the Zamorin of Calicut
Portuguese Discovery of India
The epic voyage of Vasco Da Gama 1497-1499, who sailed from Portugal, around the southern tip of Africa, along the eastern coast of Africa and then onto India. The discovery of a sea route from Europe to India began the European age of exploration, with huge consequences for both Europe and the rest of the world