King Charles VIII of France, following his conquest of Naples, heads back through Italy to France but is attacked on his way back by a combined Venetian-Milanese army. The two sides meet near the village of Fornovo, near Parma. Although ultimately a failure, Charles’ expeditions had major repercussions for it triggered the decades long Italian Wars (1494-1559), when the Italian peninsula became a battleground between foreign powers. Pictured – ‘The Madonna of the Victory’, by Andrea Mantegna (1496), commissioned by Francesco Gonzaga, ruler of Mantua
Charles VII leads his army into Italy to invade the Kingdom of Naples. He is invited into the peninsula by Ludovico Il Moro of Milan, concerned about aggression from Naples. Ludovico had expected the French to travel to Naples largely by sea, and with a smaller force, not the full deployment of the French crown
The Burgundian Wars 1474-1477
Charles the Bold of Burgundy captures the Duchy of Lorraine. But he faces fierce resistance from his neighbours who form an alliance called the League of Constance, which includes several Swiss towns. The culmination of the wars is the Siege of Nancy 1476-77
Charles the Bold of Burgundy imposes his will on the citizens of Low Countries but, in so doing, creates resentment. Meanwhile, stoked by Louis XI of France, tensions rise between Charles and the Swiss
Survey of Western European powers around 1460’s, including England, France, Burgundy, Switzerland, Savoy, and the major antagonists; King Louis XI of France (pictured) and Duke Philip the Good of Burgundy
Battle of Castillon 1453, End of the Hundred Years War
Culmination of the Hundred Years War at the Battle of Castillon 1453. The French rapidly advance into English-held territory in Normandy and Aquitaine
France Begins to Recover in the Hundred Years War
The English fail to capture Orleans, famously defended by Joan of Arc. Charles the Dauphin makes gains against the English and is crowned at the Cathedral of Reims. Philip the Good, meanwhile, concentrates on building up his Duchy of Burgundy. In 1435 the Treaty of Arras is signed between France and Burgundy – a major diplomatic defeat for the English
The English Kingdom in France
After the death of Henry V, the English, under the leadership of John Duke of Burgundy, attempt to consolidate their hold on northern France and push into the south. Resistance forms in France around Charles the Dauphin. Also involved is Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy (pictured) although his main focus of attention is in his own lands to the east.
Part 1 of 4 on the last years of the Hundred Years War.
The History of Burgundy through the centuries. Also in 1400’s civil war leaves France vulnerable to invasion by King Henry V of England and defeat at Agincourt 1415. Also the assassination of John the Fearless, Duke of Burgundy (pictured)