Battle of Civitate, 1053 AD, Part 4

In the first half of the eleventh century, the Normans gained much territory in Italy but in so doing had made many enemies. In 1054 Pope Leo IX brought together a force of Lombards, Germans and Byzantines to confront them. The Normans won an overwhelming victory and effectively conquered the southern half of the peninsula

Forthcoming Episodes

11. Battle of Kleidion, 1014
 – A strong Bulgarian kingdom clashes with the Byzantines

12. Battle of Civitate, 1053 – History of Italy from the Fall of the Roman Empire up until the take-over of the southern half of the peninsula by the Normans

13. Battle of Hastings, 1066 – The Normans invade England

14. Battle of Manzikert, 1071 – A new arrived people, the Turks, inflict defeat upon a Byzantine Empire beset with internal strife

15. Battle of Jerusalem, 1099 – The incredible story of the First Crusade

16. Battle of Hattin, 1187 – The story of the first century of the crusader states in the Middle East

17. The Third Crusade – Confrontation between two of the most heroic warriors of the age – Richard the Lionheart and Saladin

18. Siege of Constantinople, 1204 – In the Fourth Crusade, the holy warriors end up attacking fellow Christians

19. Battle of Chateau Gaillard, 1203-1204 – France takes the first step to becoming a great power

20. Battle of Bovines, 1214 – Philip Augustus of France defeats both King John of England and Emperor Otto IV

21. Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa, 1212 – A key victory for the Christians in Spain against the Moors

22. Battle of Muret, 1213 – The Albigensian Crusade, a crusade against heresy in southern France, pulls in the King of Aragon

23. Battle of the Kalka River, 1223 – Genghis Khan’s Mongols invade Russia

Battle of Civitate, 1053 AD, Part 2

The popes of the eleventh and early twelfth century were hardly living by the standards set by their religion. In spite of this this they still enjoyed considerable reverence among the leaders of Christendom. A papal alliance with the German Emperors, which proved highly valuable but sometimes very difficult, became a key element of  medieval Italian history