Category Archives: Baltic

Battle of Grunwald 1410, Part 4

The Battle of Grunwald/Tanneberg 1410 – an important battle in the history of Poland and the Baltic Region. Fought between the Teutonic Knights with guest crusaders on one side against a combined Polish/Lithuanian army. Also discussed is the battle’s aftermath and its relevance today

Battle of Grunwald 1410 Part 2

Struggle for Pomerania and Danzig/Gdansk between the native population, Teutonic knights and Kingdom of Poland. Teutonic knights move base to Marienberg. King Casimir the Great of Poland. Dynastic union of Poland and Lithuania in 1390’s. Includes quotes from Chaucer’s Canterbury Tales. Picture: Marienberg/Malbork fortress (courtesy of



Battle of Lake Peipus 1242, Part 5

The Battle of Lake Peipus or ‘The Battle on the Ice’ was fought on 5th April 1242 between a coalition of western crusaders led by the Teutonic Knights against an army from Novgorod, Russia, led by Alexander Nevsky. The conflict was made famous by a Soviet film of 1938 directed by Sergei Eisenstein.
This is the fifth and final part of a set of episodes on the Medieval Baltic and the Northern Crusades

Available to patrons of A History of Europe Key Battles Podcast at:


Battle of Lake Peipus Part 3, Conquest of Livonia 1185-1238

Livonia in the 12th century was threatened by invasion from all sides; Danes, Swedes, Germans, Poles and Russians. Key events in this episode are;
1201 – Founding of Riga (capital of modern day Latvia) by Bishop Albert
1219 – Capture of Tallinn (capital of modern day Estonia) by Denmark in the legendary battle of Lyndanisse
1236 – Defeat of a military order, the Sword Brothers, by a band of Lithuanians at the Battle of Saule

Knights vs Lithuanians

Lake Peipus Part 1, Baltic Sea, Northern Crusades

From now on some new sets of episodes will be available exclusively on a website called
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The latest set of episodes of A History of Europe, Key Battles podcast covers the Baltic Sea; firstly its early history, and then the Northern Crusades.

Part 1 of 5
The first part (of five) is available at for free at:
The armies of Germany, Poland, Scandinavia and Russia attempt to convert the Baltic pagans to Christianity and carve up their lands in the process. The culmination of the the set of episodes is the Battle of Lake Peipus 1242, or The Battle on the Ice, between the Teutonic Knights and Orthodox Russians of Alexander Nevsky. The battle is probably most famous for its representation by the Soviet director Eisenstein the film Alexander Nevsky.

Part 2 of 5
The second part is at:
The Teutonic Order was set up in the Holy Land as a German equivalent of other military orders. The first campaigns in Europe were in response to invitations from the King of Hungary and then a Duke of Poland. And so began their conquest of Prussia

Teutonic Knights